Ethanol-Blended-Petrol (EBP) has E3 benefits viz. Economic, Environmental and Energy. India implemented 5% EBP in 2002, proposed to increase to 10% EBP in 2009 and further increase to 20% EBP by 2017. Molasses based ethanol is the only source for ethanol in India. Decline in sugar production in 2008-09 severely affected molasses-ethanol production. Current ethanol production from molasses could meet 5% EBP. To achieve higher ethanol blending other sources are need for ethanol production. Non-food plant sources such as cellulosic plant biomass and sorghum juice are the promising sources to produce bioethanol for EBP program. Our research is focused on process development for economical production of fuel-ethanol from crop residues and sorghum juice.
Functional Oligosaccharides (FOS)
FOS are oligosaccharides with specific physiological functions beyond the basic nutrition. Because of the increasing health problems, caused by stress at work, environmental pollution and unbalanced food in recent days, there have been concerns over functional foods to maintain good health. FOS have lower sweetness than sucrose, high viscosity, low calorific value, resist hydrolysis in gastrointestinal tract and stimulate the proliferation of probiotics, Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus sp. We are developing economic process for FOS production from plant biomass using enzymes.
Molecular Bioremediation of Cr(VI)
Environmental pollution due to industrialization is the major concern. Heavy metal pollution is a serious issue and chromium is one of the highly toxic metal pollutants. Chromium is emitted to environment from several industrial processes including nuclear power generation. Cr at hexavalent oxidation state is highly toxic to living systems. An efficient way of preventing Cr(VI) pollution is its reduction to Cr(III) which is much less toxic. Biocatalysts such as bacteria and enzymes have the capacity to detoxify Cr(VI) by conversion to Cr(III). Molecular techniques can be employed to improve the bioremediation potential of biocatalysts for application in actual polluted sites. Current research in our lab involves isolation and engineering of enzymes for transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).
- Gobinath, R., and Chandraraj, K. (2009-Apr) Optimization of agro-residual medium for α-amylase production from a hyper-producing Bacillus subtilis KCC103 in submerged fermentation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 84, 618-625
- Gobinath, R., and Chandraraj, K. (2008-Oct) Immobilization of malto-oligosaccharide forming α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis KCC103: properties and application in starch hydrolysis. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 83, 1511-1517
- Gobinath, R., and Chandraraj, K. (2008-May) Optimization of medium and process parameters for a constitutive α-amylase production from a catabolite derepressed Bacillus subtilis KCC103. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 83,654-61.
- Abhipsa S. and Chandraraj, K. (2008-Jul) Comparison of in vitro Cr(VI) reduction by CFEs of chromate resistant bacteria isolated from chromate contaminated soil. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4130-4137.
- Gobinath Rajagopalan, Chandraraj Krishnan (2008-May) a-Amylase production from catabolite derepressed Bacillus subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. Bioresource Technology, 99,3044-3050.
- Elangovan, R., Ligy Philip, K. Chandraraj, (2008-Jul) Biosorption of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by palm flower (Borassus aethiopum). Chemical Engineering Journal, 141, 99-111.
- Senthilkumar, S.R., Dempsey, M., Chandraraj, K. , Gunasekaran, P. (2008-Nov) Optimization of biobleaching of paper pulp in an expanded bed bioreactor with immobilized alkali stable xylanase by using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology, 99, 7781-7787.
- Elangovan, R., Ligy Philip, K. Chandraraj (2008-Mar) Biosorption of chromium species by aquatic weeds: Kinetics and mechanism studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 100-112.
- S. Gokulakrishnan, K. Chandraraj, Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi (2007) A preliminary study of caffeine degradation by Pseudomonas sp. GSC 1182. International Journal of Food Microbiology 113, 346–350.
- Dillirani N, AKR Gopinath, K. Chandraraj (2006) Purification and characterization of a maltooligosaccharide-forming -amylase from a new Bacillus subtilis KCC103. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 73,591-597.
- Elangovan R, S. Abipsha, B. Rohit, P. Ligy, K. Chandraraj (2006) Reduction of Cr(VI) by a Bacillus sp. RE. Biotechnology Letters, 28:247-252.
- Gokulakrishnan S, K. Chandraraj, Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi (2005) Microbial and enzymatic methods for the removal of caffeine Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 37:225–232.
- Manoj Agrawala, Pradeep S, Chandraraj K , Sathyanarayana N. Gummadi (2005) Hydrolysis of starch by amylase from Bacillus sp. KCA102: a statistical approach, Process Biochemistry, 40, 2499-2507.
- Senthilkumar SR, Ashokkumar B, Chandra Raj K , Gunasekaran P (2005) Optimization of medium composition for alkali-stable xylanase production by Aspergillus fischeri Fxn 1 in solid-state fermentation using central composite rotary design, Bioresource Technology, 96, 1380-1386.
- Senthilkumar SR, Ashokkumar B, Chandraraj K and Gunasekaran, P (2004) Purification and characterization of a low molecular weight endoxylanase from solid-state cultures of alkali tolerant Aspergillus fischeri, Biotechnology Letters, 26, 1283–1287.
- Anthony T, Chandraraj K , Rajendran A, Gunasekaran P (2003) Inhibition of proteases during fermentation improved xylanase production by alkali tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus AR1. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 96, 394-396.
- Anthony T, Chandraraj K , Rajendran A, Gunsekaran, P (2003) High molecular weight cellulase-free xylanase from alkali-tolerant Aspergillus fumigatus AR1. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 32, 647-654.
- Chandraraj K , Talarico LA, Ingram LO, Mupin-Furlow JA (2002) Cloning and characterization of the Zymobacter palmae pyruvate decarboxylase gene (pdc) and comparison to bacterial homologues Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68, 2869-2876.
- Chandraraj K , Ingram LO, Maupin-Furlow JA (2001) Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key enzyme for the oxidative metabolism of lactic acid by Acetobacter pasteurianus Archives in Microbiology, 176, 443-451.
- Sangiliyandi G, Kannan TR, Chandraraj K , Gunasekaran, P (1999) Separation of levan-forming and sucrose hydrolysis catalyzed by levansucrase of Zymomonas mobilis using in vitro mutagenesis. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 42, 375-379.
- Gunasekaran P, Chandraraj K (1999) Ethanol fermentation technology – Zymomonas mobilis. Current Science, 77, 56-68.
- Sangiliyandi G, Chandraraj K , Gunasekaran, P (1999) Elevated temperature and chemical modification selectively abolishes levan forming activity of levansucrase of Zymomonas mobilis. Biotechnology Letters, 21, 179-182.
- Chandraraj K , Chandra TS (1996) Purification and characterization of xylanase from alkali-tolerant Aspergillus fischeri Fxn1. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 145, 457-461.
- Chandraraj K , Chandra TS (1995) A cellulase-free xylanase from alkali-tolerant Aspergillus fischeri Fxn1. Biotechnology Letters, 17, 309-314.
- Nair BU, Kanthimathi M, Chandraraj K , Ramasami T (1994) Approaches to the aqueous chemistry of chromium(IV) and chromium(V) in macrocyclic and schiff-base complexes. Proc Indian Academy of Scinces – Chemical Sciences. 106, 681-689.
- Chandraraj K and Gunasekaran P (2009) Prospects of bioethanol production in India. International Conference on Food Security and Environmental Sustainability, Kharagpur, Dec 17-19. Pp.
- Abhipsa Sarangi and Chandraraj Krishnan (2008) Effect of heavy metals on growth and Cr(VI) reduction by chromate resistant Leucobacter sp. KCH4. Proc. 14th International Conference on the Heavy Metals in the Environment, Taipei. Nov. 16-23. Pp. 236-239.
- Babu P.S., Rai S., Arora M, Gummadi S.N., Chandraraj K. (2004) Thermotolerant biocatalysts for conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol and chemicals. Proc. 2nd International Ukrainian Conference on Biomass for Energy, Sep 20-22, Kyiv, Ukraine.
- Chandraraj K and Chandra TS (1996) Production of cellulase-poor xylanase by a newly isolated fungus Fxn1, in Perspectives In Microbiology, Ed. R.S. Kahlon, pp.269-270.
- Chandraraj K , Chandra TS (1994) Xylans and xylanases – Present scenario. MICON-94 & 35th Annual Meeting of Association of Microbiologists in India, 145, 457-461.
- Abhipsa S and Chandraraj K (2009) Enzymatic reduction of hexavalent chromium in bacteria. ENVIS Newsletter, 7, 2-5.
- Chandraraj K and Gunasekaran P (2004) Bacterial Alcoholic Fermentation, in Concise Encyclopedia Of Bioresource Technology (Ed. Ashok Pandey), THRP, Inc., New York, pp.327-334.