K B Ramachandran

K B Ramachandran

Ph. D., University of Delhi
M. Sc., University of Calcutta
Office: BT 301
Tel: +91-44-2257-4121
Email: amal@iitm·ac·in
Lab: BT 315 (Website)

Research Interests

  • Metabolic Engineering
  • Bioprocess Modelling, Simulation and Control
  • Enzyme Engineering
  • Biorefinery
  • Biopolymers

Publications in Books:

1. In “Bioprocess Computation in Biotechnology”, T.K. Ghose (Ed), Ellis Harwood, New York (1990).

  • Chapter 3 – Kinetics of growth and product formation (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 4 – Death and containment (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 5 – Enzyme reactions and technology (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 6 – Mass transfer and scale-up (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 7 – Bioreactor systems (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 10 – Bio project design (Co-authored).
  • Chapter 11 – Unsolved problems on various topics (Co-authored).

2. Application of fluidization principles for Bioprocess, Chapter 4, p 304-338 in “Three Phase Sparged Reactors”, Edited by K.D.P. Nigam and A.Schumpe, Gordan and Breach Publishing Group (1996). (with P.Ghosh and V.V. Praveen).

3. Progress in Bioprocessing of Biofertilizers, Chapter 38, p 341-353 in “Advanced Bioprocess Biotechnology”, Edited by S.N. Mukhopadhyay, Viva Books Private Limited (2005).

4.Principles of Metabolic Engineering, Chapter 5, p 129-151 in “Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Foundations of Biotechnology and Bioengineering” Edited byAshok Pandey and Jose Antonio Teixeira, Elsevier (2017) (with S. Ramalingam)

Journal Publications:

  1. Kalaiyezhini, D. and Ramachandran K.B., Biosynthesis of Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) from glycerol by Paracoccus denitrificans in a batch bioreactor – Effect of process variables, Process Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2015) 45(1) 69-83.
  2. Jyotsna Jolly, Bernd Hitzmann, Subramanian Ramalingam and Ramachandran K.B, Biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol with Lactobacillus reuteri: Effect of operating variables, Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology (2014) 118 (2), 188-194.
  3. Sneh Sanjay Badle, Guhan Jayaraman, Ramachandran K.B, Ratio of intracellular precursors concentration and their flux influences hyaluronic acid molecular weight in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant Lactococcus lactis, Bioresource Technology (2014) 163, 222-227.
  4. Ashish Chauhan; Sneh Sanjay Badle, Guhan Jayaraman, Ramachandran K.B, The P170 expression system enhances hyaluronan molecular weight and production in metabolically-engineered Lactococcus lactis, Biochemical Engineering Journal (2014) 90,73-78.
  1. Hmar, Rothangmawi, Prasad, Shashi Baka, Jayaraman, Guhan, Ramachandran K.B, Chromosomal integration of has genes enhances the molecular weight of hyaluronan produced in Lactococcus lactis,Biotechnology Journal (2014) (doi: 10.1002/biot.201400215).
  2. Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy, Hema Vaidyanathan, Ivana Djurdjevic, Elamparithi Jayamani, Ramachandran K.B, Wolfgang Buckel, Guhan Jayaraman, Subramanian Ramalingam, Engineering Escherichia coli with acrylate pathway genes for propionic acid synthesis and its impact on mixed-acid fermentation, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2013), 97 (3), 1191-1200.
  3. Mihir V. Shah1, Sneh S. Badle1, Ramachandran K.B, Hyaluronic acid production and molecular weight improvement by redirection of carbon flux towards its biosynthesis pathway, Biochemical Engineering Journal (2013) 80, 53-60.
  4. V.Saranya,  Poornimakkani, M. S. Krishna kumari, P. Suguna, C. Binuramesh, P. Abirami, V. Rajeswari, Ramachandran K.B, R. Shenbagarathai, Quantification of Intracellular Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Virtue of Personalized Flow Cytometry Protocol, Current Microbiology (2012),65 (5), 589-59.
  5. Shashi Bala Prasad, Ramachandran K.B., Guhan Jayaraman Transcription analysis of hyaluronan biosynthesis genes in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis,Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 94,1593-1607(2012).
  6. Hema Vaidyanathan, Vijayalakshmi Kandasamy, Gopu Gopal Ramakrishnan, Ramachandran K.B., Guhan Jayaraman and Subramanian Ramalingam, Glycerol conversion to 1,3- Propanediol is enhanced by the expression of a heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Lactobacillus reuteri, AMB Express 2011, 1:37 (4 November 2011).
  7. Raveendran Sidhu, Balakrishnan Ammu, Parameswaran Binod, Sreelatha K Deepthi, Ramachandran K.B., Carlos Ricardo Soccol and Ashok Pandey, Production and Chracterisation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from crude glycerol by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 and improving its thermal properties by blending with other polymers; Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 54, 783-794 (2011)
  8. Gary Brodeur, Elizabeth Yau, Kimberly Badal, John Collier, Ramachandran K.B.and Subramanian Ramakrishnan, Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review, Enzyme Research, Article ID 787532, 17 pages, doi:10.4061/2011/787532, Volume 2011.
  9. Shashi Bala Prasad, Guhan Jayaraman and Ramachandran K.B., Hyaluronic acid production is enhanced by the additional co-expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactococcus lactis, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86,273-283 (2010).
  10. Jagannath and Ramachandran K.B., Influence of competing metabolic processes on the molecular weight of hyaluronic acid synthesized by Streptococcus zooepidemicus, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 48, 148-158 (2010).
  11. Avneesh D. Singh, Vikineswary Sabaratnam, Noorlidah Abdullah, Annuar, M. S. M. and Ramachandran, K. B., Decolourisation of chemically different dyes by enzymes from spent compost of Pleurotus sajor-caju and their kinetics, African Journal of Biotechnology, 9, 41-54 (2010).
  12. Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Ramachandran K.B.. and Masitah Hasan, Effect of Enzyme Molecules Covering of Oil-Water Interfacial Area on the Kinetic of Oil Hydrolysis, Chemical Engineering Journal, 139, 540-548 (2008)
  13. V. Praveen and Ramachandran K.B., Evaluation of UASB reactor performance during start-up operation using synthetic mixed-acid waste, Bioresource Technology, 99, 8231-8236 (2008).
  14. S. M. Annuar, I.K.P. Tan, S. Ibrahim, Ramachandran K.B., A kinetic model for growth and biosynthesis of medium–chain-length poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates) in Psedomonas putida Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25(2), 217-228 (2008).
  15. V. Vadlanii and Ramachandran K.B., Evaluation of influent medium composition and concentration in a batch reactor for effective startup of UASB reactors, Journal of Environmental Engineering(ASCE) 134(12), 1023-1028 (2008).
  16. S.M. Annuar, I.K.P. Tan, and Ramachandran K.B., Evaluation of nitrogen sources for growth and production of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates) from palm kernel oil by Pseudomonas putida PGA1. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, 16 (1), 11-15 (2008).
  17. Kaushik Ghosh and Ramachandran K.B., Analysis of the effect of in situ product removal on the stability and performance of a continuous bioreactor with cell separator for ethanol production, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly (2007), 21(3), 285-296.
  18. S. M. Annuar., I.K.P. Tan., S. Ibrahim., Ramachandran K.B., Production of medium-chain-length poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates) from crude fatty acids mixture by Psedomonas putida, IChME Food and Bioproducts Processing (2007), 85(C2), 104-1119.
  19. Yasotha Kathiresan., Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua., Ramachandran K.B., Irene Kit Ping Tan., Chemical Characterization of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) recovered by enzymatic treatment and ultrafiltration, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (2007),82(9), 847-855.
  20. Shamel., Ramachandran K.B., Masitah Hasan and Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Hydrolysis of palm and olive oils by immobilised lipase using hollow fibre reactor, Biochemical Engineering Journal (2007),34, 228-235.
  21. Annuar, M.S. M., Tan, I.K.P., Ramachandran K.B., Production of medium-chain-length poly (3-hydroxyalkanoates) from saponified palm kernel oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of batch and fed-batch fermentations, Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, (2006) 2(2), 1-9.
  22. Tan, Y.Y.J., Hashim, M.A., Ramachandran K.B., Biomass acclimatization to sequentially varying substrates in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, (2006),41(4), 437-448.
  23. Ramachandran K.B., Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Fong, C.S., Gak, C.W., Kinetic study on hydrolysis of oils by lipase with ultrasonic emulsification, Biochemical Engineering Journal (2006),32, 19-24.
  24. Annuar, S, Tan, I.K.P, Ibrahim, S, Ramachandran K.B., Ammonium uptake and growth kinetics of Pseudomonas putida PGA1, Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (2006),14(1), 1-10.
  25. Yasotha, K., Aroua, M.K., Ramachandran K.B., Tan, I.K.P., Recovery of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) through enzymatic digestion treatments and ultrafiltartion. Biochemical Engineering Journal (2006), 30,260-268.
  26. Azwar, Hussain, M.A. and Ramachandran K.B., The study of Neural Network-based controller for controlling dissolved oxygen concentration in sequencing batch reactor. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, (2006) 28(4), 251-265.
  27. N. Kabbashi, A.N., Ramachandran K.B., Fakhru’l, R. Suleyman, A.M., Optimization of single and mixed cultures for solid fermentation of municipal sewage sludge, International journal of Environmental Studies. (2005) 62 (2), 127-135.
  28. Azwar, Hussain, M.A. and Ramachandran K.B., Modeling and dynamic simulation of activated sludge process in sequencing batch reactor. Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing (2005) 13(5/6), 675-686.
  29. Mashitah, M.D, Ramachandran K.B., and Masitah, H. Sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide to growth and hyaluronic acid production by streptococcus zooepidemicus ATCC 39920. Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing (2005) 13(5/6), 531-540.
  30. Shamel, M.M, Ramachandran K.B., and Hasan Masitah, Operational Stability of lipase enzyme: Effect of temperature and shear. Developments in Chemical Engineering and Mineral Processing (2005) 13(5/6), 599-604.
  31. Sen Gupta, B. Hashim, M.A., Ramachandran K.B., Sen Gupta, I. and Cui, Z. F. The effect of gas sparging in cross-flow micro filtration of 2, 3-butanediol fermentation broth. Engineering in Life Sciences (2005) 5(1), 54-57.
  32. Choudhury J.P., Ramachandran K.B., Hashim, M.A., Simultaneous removal of heavy metals from surface water by phisico-chemical treatment process. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly (2004), 18(3), 295-302.
  33. Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Ramachandran K.B., Hasan, Masitah, High enzyme concentration model for the kinetics of hydrolysis of oils by lipase, Chemical Engineering Journal (2004), 103(1-3), 7-11.
  34. Mashitah, M.D; Masitah, H; Ramachandran K.B., amplifying the manganese scavenging potential of Streptococcus Zooepdimicus to reactive oxygen species during production of hyaluronic acid. The Medical Journal of Malaysia (2004), 59(B), 59-60.
  35. Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Ramachandran K.B., Hasan, Masitah. Investigation of the specific interfacial area of palm oil/water system. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (2004), 79(7), 706-710.
  36. Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Ramachandran K.B., Hasan, Masitah. Unsteady state kinetics of lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil in a stirred bioreactor, Biochemical Engineering Journal (2004), 10(1), 81-86.
  37. Azad S A; Vikineswary S; Chong V C; Ramachandran K.B., Rhodovulum sulfidophilum in the treatment and utilization of sardine processing wastewater. Letters in applied microbiology (2004), 38(1), 13-8.
  38. Kabbashi, A. N.; Razi, A. Fakhru’l; Idris, Azni Bin., Ramachandran K.B., Study of biological parameters during composting of sewage sludge. Brunei Darussalam Journal of Technology and commerce (2003), 3(1), 47-52.
  39. Syahiddin, D., Hasan, Masitha, Ramachandran K.B., Effect of pH on growth, spore production and spore viability of biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzanium in submerged fermentation. ASEAN Journal of Chemical Engineering (2003) 3(1), 14-18.
  40. Tham, H. J.; Ramachandran K.B., Hussain, M. A. Sliding mode control for a continuous bioreactor. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, (2003), 17(4), 267-275.
  41. Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Hasan, Masitah; Ramachandran K.B., Kinetics of the enzymatic hydrolysis of palm oil by lipase. Process Biochemistry (2003), 38(8), 1155-1163.
  42. Kabbashi, A. N.; Razi, A. Fakhru’l; Ramachandran K.B.,; Al-Suwiti, Ibrahim N. Effect of heavy metals (Ca, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd) on composting of sewage sludge treatment plant. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences (2003), 5(1), 23-29.
  43. Hisbullah; Hussain, M. A.; Ramachandran K.B., Design of a fuzzy logic controller for regulating substrate feed to fed-batch fermentation. Food and Bioproducts Processing (2003), 81(C2), 138-146.
  44. Noor, I. M.; Hasan, M.; Ramachandran K.B., Effect of operating variables on the hydrolysis rate of palm oil by lipase. Process Biochemistry (2003), 39(1), 13-20.
  45. Hisbullah; Hussain, M. A.; Ramachandran K.B., Comparative evaluation of various control schemes for fed-batch fermentation. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2002), 24(5), 309-318.
  46. Dey, Apurba; Ramachandran K.B.,; Roychowdhury, P. K. The adsorption of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans on coal and pyrite surfaces. Indian Chemical Engineer (2002), 44(2), 104-109.
  47. Kabbashi, A. N.; Ahmadun, F.R., Ramachandran K.B., Idris, A.B. Changes in biological parameters during composting of sewage sludge treatment plant. Asian Jr. of Microbial Biotech. Env. Sc. (2002), 4(4), 527-532.
  48. Azad S A; Vikineswary S; Ramachandran K.B., Chong V C. Growth and production of biomass of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum in sardine processing wastewater. Letters in applied microbiology (2001), 33(4), 264-8.
  49. Azad S.A; Vikineswary S; Chong V.C., Ramachandran K.B.,Potential of wastegrown phototrophic bacteria as a feed ingredient in aquaculture. Jurnal Sains (2001), 12(2), 77-86.
  50. Gupta Sen I., Hashim, M.A., Ibrahim, S., Ramachandran K.B., Gupta Sen B., Cui, Z.F., The Effect of Gas Sparging on Cross-Floe Filtration of 2,3-Butanediol Fermentation Broth. Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2001), 73(6), 729-730.
  51. Gupta Sen I., Hashim, M.A., Ibrahim, S., Ramachandran K.B.,Production of 2,3-Butanediol from Blackstrap Molasses. Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2001), 73(6), 654.
  52. Kee, Chua Yeo Gek; Hassan, Masitah; Ramachandran K.B., Studies on the kinetics of isopropyl palmitate synthesis in packed bed bioreactor using immobilized lipase. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology (1999), 27(5 & 6), 393-398.
  53. Singhal, Ashish; Gomes, James; Praveen, V. V.; Ramachandran K.B., Axial Dispersion Model for Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactors. Biotechnology Progress (1998), 14(4), 645-648.
  54. Gupta, Naveen; Gupta, S. K.; Ramachandran K.B., Modeling and simulation of anaerobic stratified biofilm for methane production and prediction of multiple steady states. Chemical Engineering Journal (1997), 65(1), 37-46.
  55. Rao, A. G.; Lata, Kusum; Raman, P.; Kishore, V. V. N.; Ramachandran K.B., Studies of anaerobic treatment of synthetic waste in a UASB reactor. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection (1997), 17(5), 349-354.
  56. Mukherjee, K. J.; Deb, J. K.; Ramachandran K.B., Studies on maintenance of vector pBK2 in Corynebacterium acetoacidophilium by co-culture experiments in a continuous bioreactor. Enzyme and Microbial Technology (1996), 18(8), 555-560.
  57. Ramachandran K.B., Rathore, A. S.; Gupta, S. K. Modeling the effects of electrostatic interaction with reaction-generated pH change on the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Chemical Engineering Journal (1995), 57(1), B15-B21.
  58. Kumar M L; Ramachandran K.B., Application of innovative downstream processing techniques in isolation and purification of biomolecules. Hindustan Antibiotics Bulletin (1994) 36(3-4), 98-134.
  59. Praveen, V.V., Ramachandran K.B., Operational characteristics of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Recent trends in Biotechnology (1993) 175-78.
  60. Dey, Apurba, Ramachandran K.B., Kinetics of oxidation of aqueous ferrous sulfate by Thiobacillus ferroxidans. Recent trends in Biotechnology (1993) 170-74.
  61. Sreekrishnan, T. R.; Ramachandran K.B.,Ghosh, P. Effect of operating variables on biofilm formation and performance of an anaerobic fluidized-bed bioreactor. Biotechnology and Bioengineering (1991), 37(6), 557-66.
  62. Mukherjee, K. J.; Deb, J. K.; Ramachandran K.B., Construction of vector of Brevibacterium lactofermentum and study of its stability in continuous culture. Journal of Biotechnology (1990), 16(1-2), 109-22.
  63. Ramachandran K.B., Hashim, Mohd A.; Fernandez, Alan A. Kinetic study of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering (1990), 70(4), 235-40.
  64. Ramachandran K.B., Goma, G. 2, 3-Butanediol production from glucose by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a cell recycle system. Journal of Biotechnology (1988), 9(1), 39-46.
  65. Murthy, Veluri V. P. S.; Ramachandran K.B., Oxygen transfer in air-pulsed column in continuous mode. Microbial Utilization of Renewable Resources (1991) 7, 381-90.
  66. Ramachandran K.B., Hashim, M. A. Simulation studies on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol. Chemical Engineering Journal (1990), 45(2), B27-B34.
  67. Murthy, V. V. P. S.; Ramachandran K.B., Ghose, T. K. Oxygen transfer studies in air-pulsed column bioreactor, Processes Biochemistry (1989), 24, 77-82.
  68. Ramachandran K.B., Goma, G. Effect of oxygen supply and dilution rate on the production of 2, 3-butanediol in continuous bioreactor by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Enzyme and Microbial Technology (1987), 9(2), 107-11.
  69. Srivastava, S. K.; Gopalkrishnan, K. S.; Ramachandran K.B., The production of ß -glucosidase in shake-flasks by Aspergillus wentii. Journal of Fermentation Technology (1987), 65(1), 95-9.
  70. Murthy, V. V. P. S.; Ramachandran K.B., Ghose, T. K. Gas hold-up and power consumption in an air-pulsed column bioreactor. Process Biochemistry (1987), 22(1), 3-8.
  71. Srivastava, S. K.; Gopalkrishnan, K. S.; Ramachandran K.B., Kinetic characterization of a crude ß-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus wentii Pt 2804. Enzyme and Microbial Technology (1984), 6(11), 508-12.
  72. Gupta, A.; Ramachandran K.B., Diffusional and electrostatic effects on the kinetics of immobilized enzymes. Journal of Fermentation Technology (1983), 61(3), 323-8.
  73. Goel, Subhash C.; Ramachandran K.B., Studies on the adsorption of cellulase on lignocellulosics. Journal of Fermentation Technology (1983), 61(3), 281-6.
  74. Goel, Subhash C.; Ramachandran K.B., Comparison of the rates of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw and bagasse with celluloses.Enzyme and Microbial Technology (1983), 5(4), 281-4.
  75. Srivastava, S. K.; Ramachandran K.B., Gopalkrishnan, K. S. ß-Glucosidase production by Aspergillus wentii in stirred tank bioreactors. Biotechnology Letters (1981), 3(9), 477-80.
  76. Ramachandran K.B., Perlmutter, D. D. Effects of immobilization on the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. II. Urease in a packed-column differential reactor system. Biotechnology and Bioengineering (1976), 18(5), 685-99.
  77. Ramachandran K.B., Perlmutter, D. D. Effects of immobilization on the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. I. Glucose oxidase in a recirculation reactor system. Biotechnology and Bioengineering (1976), 18(5), 669-84.